Wednesday, April 10, 2013

Waec 2013 Practical Specimen ( Expected Biology Question & Solutions)

This is the Waec May/June 2013 Biology Practical Specimen. Candidates should note that this Waec May/June 2013 Biology Practical Specimen is just a guide for them to prepare for the exams. ExamsGuru Team is not liable in wrong handling of this information or in any where advice any candidate to indulge in exams malpractice because it is not only spoiling the individual but the society at  large.

Waec May/June 2013 Biology Practical Specimens A -S

SPECIMEN A- Stem of cassava plant/sugar cane/sweet potato
SPECIMEN B- Plantain/Banana/Pineapple sucker.
SPECIMEN C- Runner of Grass.
SPECIMEN D- Spirogyra filaments in water.
SPECIMEN E- Lung of freshly killed goat.
SPECIMEN F- Freshly preserved Toad.
SPECIMEN G1- Water leaf plant with fresh stem (Talinum triangulare).
SPECIMEN G2- Water leaf plant with fleshy stem (left in cosin solution for minimum of six hours).
SPECIMEN H- Freshly prepared iodine solution.
SPECIMEN L- Skin of a goat/sheep/cow.
SPECIMEN M: Feather(Quill).
SPECIMEN N: Shell of a giant African snail.
SPECIMEN P: Tuber of Irish potato.
SPECIMEN Q: Twig of hibiscus/Bougainvillea.
SPECIMEN R: cassava cutting.
SPECIMEN S: Hind wing of cockroach


PRATICAL BIOLOGY SAMPLE QUESTIONS
SPECIMEN A:
specimen A is a stem of cassava.
specimen A is propagated by
stem cutting. specimen A consist
of nodes .a leaf or palmate leaf .
botanical name =manihof spp.
pest of
specimen A includes. (a)
grasshopper
(b)white flies
(c)mealy bug (d)rodents . disease
ofspecimen A are casava
mosaic,leaf spot ,root knot e.t.c

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN A
(a)possesion of notes
(b)presence of inter nodes
(c)possesion of buds
(d)possesion of leaves and leaves
stalk
(e)it stored food in the roots
SPECIMEN B
SPECIMEN B is a plantain or
bannana sucker .
method of propagating
specimen
B is by sucker. class of fruit of
specimen B is a berry.other
plants in the same class of berry
are (a)tomato
(b)guava
(c)garden eggs
other plants that can propagated
by sucker are (a)pineaple(b)
bannana . suckers are
underground young plants
which
develop from the axillary buds of
the parent plant.

ecological consequence of sucker
is over crowding leading
toncompelition for space,light
and available food resources .
***************************

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN B
(a)presence of advations roots
(b) possesion of axillary buds
(c) possesion of leaf base
(d) underground stem of main
shoot is also present

ECONOMIC IMPORTANT OF
SPECIMEN B
(a)the new plant arised from the
stem sucker is a source of
income
to the farmers
(b)the fruit cell is also a source
of income
(c)the fruit is a good source of
food, vitamins,minerals,e.t.c
(d)the leaf base of the main
shoot can also host pests and
diseases.

SIMILARITIES BETWEEN
SPECIMEN A AND B
(a)both are propagated through
their vegetative parts.
(b)both consist of buds

DIFFERECES BETWEEN SPECIMEN
A AND B
SPECIMEN A
(a)its a stem of cassava
(b)absense of the stem sucker
(c)it is dicot

SPECIMEN B
(a)it is a plantain sucker
(b)presence of stem sucker
(c)it is a monocot
specimen C
specimen C is runner of
grass.runners are stems which
grow horizontally on the surface
of the ground
examples are (a)imperata
cylindrica(b)runner of sweet
potato(c)strawberry(d)blueberry
e.t.c
************************
----DIAGRAM------
the structure of imperata
cylindrics(a runner)
************************

GENERAL CHARACTERISTICS OF A
RUNNER
(a)possesion of buds
(b)they grow horizontally to the
surface of the ground
(c)they are organs of vegetative
propagation
(d)possesion of advatition roots.

SIMILARITIES BETWEEN
SPECIMEN B & C
(a)both are propagated through
their vegetative parts
(b)both have advertition roots
(c)scale leaves are present in
both specimen

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN
SPECIMEN B & C
SPECIMEN B
(a)its a plantain sucker
(b)possesion ofunderground
stem
(c)stem sucker grow vertically

SPECIMEN C
(a)is a runner of grass.
(b)the stem grow on the surface
of the ground
(c)stem runner grow horizontally.

SPECIMEN D
specimen D is spirogyrs
filorments in water in a petric
dish. Specimen D is a filaments
plants in the division of
thallophyt.
other organisms in the thallophyt
are
(a)sargassum
(b)closterium
(c)anabaena , e.t.c

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN
D
(a)possesion of clchiroplast
(b)possesion of mucilage
(c)possesion of cell wall
(d)possesion of pyreniod
(e)it is a simple multicellular
****************************
---DIAGRAM----
the structure of specimen D
****************************
Mode of reproduction:
-specimen D carries out s*xual
reproduction by conjugation &
as*xual reproduction by
fragmentation
-When specimen D (SPIROGYRS)
cell is immersed in salt (super)
solution more concentrated than
its cell sap,the cell (spirogyrs)we
shrink & die (plasmolysis have
taking
place).

-Rub the filament of the
specimen D gently between your
fingers & you will observe that
the filaments are coated with
mucilage which makes them
slimy.

-Place a filament of specimen D
in a cover slip or white tide &
place a drop of iodine solution
the part(portion)of the
specimen.the portion turned
blue-black showing
the presence of starch.



-The invunerable bubbles of gas
form among the threads of
specimen D shows that oxygen is
evolved during photosynthesis.
Mode of nutrition of specimen:
-D is AUTOgrapH (holophytic)
nutrition.
-The habitat of specimen D is
aquatic (moist place)
 

SPECIMEN E
************************
-----DIAGRAM----
The structure of specimen E
***********************
CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN E
(a)it consist of bronehioles
(b)it also consist of alveoli
(c)it consist of network of blood
capillaries
(d)it is used for respiration
-Respiration is a metabolic
process wchich takes part in
living cells by which organic
nutrients are broken down to
release energy(ATP)for life
activity or (6H12
O6+6O2-->6CO2+6H2O+ATP)

SIMILARITIES BETWEEN
PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND
RESPIRATION
(a)both occur in living organism

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN
RESPIRATION & PHOTOSYNTHESIS
RESPIRATION:
(a)it is exothrmic
(b)it occur in plants & animals
(c)respiration is a catabolic
process
(d)heat is libiberated
(e)oxygen is used
Photosynthesis:
(a)it is endothermic
(b)it occur only in plants
(c)photosynthesis is an anearobic
procees
(d)heat is absorbed
(e)oxygen is liberated
SPECIMEN F
SPECIMEN F is freshly perserved
Toad.
Habitat of specimen F is
terretrial-aquatic.
Respiratory organ:
lungs,skin,gills,& buea cavity.
Class of specimen F is amphibian.
Parental care= none.
Reproduction= s*xual.
Fertilization= external.
Excretory organ= kidney.
Mode of nutrition=
carnivores,during adult stage &
herbivore during tadpole stage.
**********************
----DIAGRAM----
structure of specimen F
************************
STAGES OF DEVELOPMENT OF
SPECIMEN F
specimen F undergoes various
stages of development which are
(a)courtship stage
(b)the egg stage
(c)the young tadpole stage
(d)the external gill stage
(e)the internal gill stage
(f)the limb stage
(g)the young toad stage.

METAMORPHOSIS of specimen F
SPECIMEN F undergoes
imcomplete metemorphosis,that
is from egg->tadpole->adult.
Metamorphosis is the series of
gradual charges of forms & shape
of an insect from the
fertilised egg to adult.

EFFECTS OR ROLE OF HORMONE IN
THE DEVELOPMENT OF TOAD
(SPECIMEN F)
In the specimen
F,metamorphosis is controlled by
the hormone called
thyroxin,tyroxin lastens the rates
of metamorphosis.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN F
(a)possesion of bulg eye
(b)possesion of poisonous gland
(c)specimen F exibit dual life
(d)absense of neek
(e)possesion of webbed limbs

ADAPTATION OF SPECIMEN F IT'S
HABITAT
(a)possesion of poisonous glands
for defence
(b)presence of long sticky tongue
for capturin of prey
(c)possesion of webbed limbs for
swimming
(d)possesion of tympanic
membrane for recieving sound
(e)absense of tail for easy
hopping.

ECONOMIC IMPORTACE OF
SPECIMEN F
(a)it destroyed some equatic
weeds during tadpole stage
(b)it reduce the effect of
structural adaptative of insects.
(c)it serve as a food to terrestrial
organism eg hawk,snake e.t.c
(d)it also serve as food to some
aquatic species
 

SPECIMEN G1
Specimen G1 is water leaf plant
with fleshy stem
***************************
----DIAGRAM----
The stucture of specimen G1
***************************
----DIAGRAM----
traverse sector of the stem
specimen G1
***************************
STRUCTURAL ADAPTATIVE OF
SPECIMEN G1
(a)possesion of taproot system
(b)possesion of lenticells
(c)pressure of hair root
(d)possesion of succulent leaves

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN MONOCOT
& DICOT
MONOCOT
(a)Possesion of narrow cortex
(b)absense of cambium
(c)possesion of fibrous root
system
(d)possesion of broad leaf tip
DICOT
(a)possesion of wide cortex
(b)presence of cambium
(c)possesion of taproot system
(d)possesion of pointed leaf tip
SPECIMEN G2
specimen G2 is water leaf plant
with fleshy stem (left in eosin
solution for minimum of six
hours). Naijatophit.tk
An experiment to show that the
xylem tissue conducts water
upwards from the roots through
the stem to the leaves.

AIM OF THE EXPERIMENT
to show that the xylem tissue
conducts water upwards from
the roots through the stem to
the leave

METHOD OF THE EXPERIMENT
A young herbacous plant
(specimen G2)is
uprooted,washed & placed in a
beaker containing eosin solution
(red ink)the roots must be
completely coverd by the soluion
(eosin)leave the set UP for about
six hours at the end of six
hours,the plants is brought out &
washed in a tap water.transver
section of the roots,
stems,7leavesof
the plant are made & examined
under a microscope.


 OBSERVATION-The xylem vessels
are staird red
CONCLUSION-it showsthat the
xylem tissue conducts water in
plant
 

SPECIMEN L
specimen L is skin of a goat.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF
SPEICIMEN L
(a)A good source of income
(b)its used for decoration
(c)it is used for musical
instrument
(d)A good meat
************************
----DIAGRAM----
THE STRUCTURE OF SPECIMEN L
************************
SOURCE OF SPECIMEN L
specimen L can be obtained from
goat,sheep cow e.t.c

IMPORTANCE OF SPECIMEN L to
the organisms where it can be
obtained
(a)it relegate body temerature
(b)it brings about responds to
stimulus
(c)it also help for excretion &
osmorgulation
(d)it also help to manufacture &
store vitamins
 

SPECIMEN M
Specimen M is qill feather from
birds
***************************
----DIAGRAM----
sTructure of specimen M
***************************
Types of feather
(a)quill feather
(b)contour feather
(c)down feather
(d)filoplume feather.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF
SPECIMEN M
(a)t is used for flight
(b)it gives shape to the animal
(c)the calamus is rich in mineral
(d)it is used for making of pillos
(e)it is used for decoration
(f)A source of manure

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN M
(a)possesion of vane
(b)presence of barbs
(c)it is used for flight
(d)presence of calamus
(e)possesion shaft

(WwW.Naijatophit.Tk)

ADAPTIVE FEATHERS OF SPECIMEN
M
(a)it is mdified for flight
(b)its used as an insulator
(c)it gives shapes to the organs
that posses them
(d)it is also used to keep the
osmotic temperature of the
organisms that posses them
constant.

SIMILARITIES BETWEEN SPECIMEN
L & M
(a)both are anal bye-products
(b)both also helps to maintain
constant body temperature .
(c)both also helps to protect the
body from diseases,cold e.t.c
(d)both can be used for
decoration
-Parasites of specimen M is fles
-Parasites of specimen L is tick

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN SPECIMEN
L & M
Specimen L
(a)specimen L is obtained from
goats,sheep e.t.c
(b)it consists of fur (hairs)
(c)specimen L is not modified for
flight
(d)absense ofvane & barbs
Specimen M
(a)specimen M is obtained from
birds.
(b)it does not consists of fur
(c)specimen M modified for flight
(d)presense of vane & barbs
 


SPECIMEN N
specimen N is a shell of a great
african snail
***************************
---DIAGRAM----
STRUCTURE OF SPECIMEN N
**************************
-Respiratory organ of specimen N
is by the foot.
-Habitat= terrestrial ie humid
areas.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN N
(a)possesion of apex of shell
(b)it is hexical in nature
(c)presence of aparture
(d)possesion of spiral whorn.

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF
SPECIMEN N
(a)it is used as ornament
(b)it is also used for musical
instrument purpose
(c)A source of income.
(d)it is used for drinking of water

SIMILARITIES BETWEEN SPECIMEN
L,M & N
(a)they are all obtained from
animals
(b)all are anal bye-product
(c)all are used for decoration
(d)they are used for musical
instrumental purposes.
 


SPECIMEN P
SPECIMEN p is a tuber of irish
potato .its also stem
tuber.specimen P is grown on a
cold temperature environment
************************
---DIAGRAM---
STRUCTURE OF SPECIMEN P
************************
CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN P
(a)specimen P is a tuber
(b)possesion of scale leaf
(c)possesion of lenticell
(d)possesion of axillary bud or
eye

ECONOMIC IMPORTANCE OF
SPECIMEN P
(a)A good source of food
(b)A source of income
(c)A specimen P is a source of
carborhydrate.
 


SPECIMEN Q
specimen Q is a twig of hibiscus
flower.

CHARACTERISTICS OF SPECIMEN Q
(a)The tendril twigs round a
supports
(b)the tendril is located at the
top of the leaf

EXPERIMENTS USING SPECIMEN H
(a)test for starch using specimen
H & p
collect a few pieces of spcimen p
(irish potato) & add few drops of
specimen H (IODINE SOLUTION).
Record your observation &
inference
-OBSERVATION: The colour of the
portion of specimen P change to
blue-black .
-INFERENCE: It indicate the
presence of starch.

TEST OFF STARCH ON GREEN LEAF
USING THE LEAF SPECIMEN
G1,G2,& Q

METHOD OF EXPERIMENT: Step 1:
Collect the leaf from any of the
specimen above .boil the leaf for
about 4-7 minutes to kill the
cells,burst starch grains that are
present & to inactivate the
enzymes
in the leaf.
STEP 2: Then dip the boiled leaf
into a test tube containing 70%
alcohol to decolourised the leaf
STEP 3: Finally,collect the leaf in a
test tube containing 70% alcohol
& place in a white tile & pour few
drops of specimen H (IODINE)
Solotion on the leaf.

OBSERVATION: The leaf turned
blue-black or iodine solution.

INFERENCE: It indicates the
presents of starch.
************************
JUST TO SHOW HOW I CARE FOR
Naijatophiting.
I TYPED THESE WHOLE THING
MYSELF TO MAKE SURE YOU GET
THE BEST NOT MINDING THE
STRESS..
ENJOY..........
 

Physics Practical Specimens For May/June 2013 WAEC Examination (+ Expected Question & Solutions)



The following are the specimens for physics practical for the 2013 WAEC May/June. We have posted WAEC biology practical specimens too. You might want to confirm them from your school to be sure that they tally with what you have here.
Specimens for Physics Practical WAEC May/June 2013.
QUESTION 1.
-Uniform meter rule labelled M with its mass written on its reverse side.
-Knife edge.
-Graduated measuring cylinder(0-10cm^3) labelled m1 with its mass indicated on it.
-Fine dry sand.
-Spatula.
-Thread 50cm long.
QUESTION 2.
-Rectangular glass prism measuring at least 8.0cm x 5.5cm.
-Cellotex board.
-Four optical pins.
-Four thumb pins.
-Drawing papers.
QUESTION 3.
-2 ohm standard resistor.
-Ammeter(0-3A).
-Constantan wire S.W.G.28, 100cm long.
-Two 1.5V dry cells or 2.0V freshly charged accumulator.
-Meter rule.
-Key.
-Crocodile clip.
-Six connecting wires.

EXPECTED QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

QUESTION 2:
(a.) Measure and record the
thickness of the glass block
provided.

Trace the outline ABCD of the
glass block on the sheet of paper
as shown. Remove the block and
draw Normal at N.
Naijatophit.Tk

Draw an incident ray such that
the angle of
incidence,i=25degree. Fix two
pins at points P and Q on the
incident ray. Replace the glass
block and fix two other pins at
point R and Y such that the pins
appear to be in a straight line
with the images of the pins at P
and Q when viewed through the
side DC of the glass block.

Remove the block and join the
points at R and Y producing the
line to meet DC and X. Join NX
and measure its length L.
Evaluate L^-2 and Sin^2i.
Repeat the experiment for
i=35degree, 45degree,55degree
and 65degree. In each case
determine the corresponding
values of L, L^-2 and Sin^i.

Tabulate your readings.
Plot a graph of L^- on the vertical
axis and Sin^2i on the horizontal
axis, starting both axes from the
origin.
Determine the slope(s) of the
graph and the intercept(I) on the
vertical axis. Evaluate the
expression: K=(I/S)^1/2.
State two precautions taken to
ensure accurate results.
(i.) Using your graph deduce the
value of L when i=0degree.
(ii.) State Snell's law of refraction
and explain why refraction
occurs
at the boundary between two
media.

ANSWER:
Table of values/Observation:
Width of glass block b=6.5cm.
S/N: 1,2,3,4,5.
P(degree):
25.00,35.00,45.00,55.00,65.00.
L(cm): 6.80,7.00,7.30,7.80,8.20.
L^2(cm^2):
46.24,49.00,53.29,60.84,67.24.
L^-2(cm^-2):
0.0216,0.0204,0.0188,0.0164,0.01
SinPdegree:
0.04226,0.5736,0.7071,0.8191,0.9
Sin^2Pdegree:
0.1786,0.3290,0.5000,0.6710,0.82
***************************
NOTE:-
THE FOLLOWING:
*Draw a table for the above
values.
*Note that ^ means Raise to
Power. Eg: 2^-1 means Two raise
to power minus One.

*Note that COMMA(,) in the above
table means NEXT LINE. Eg:
2,3,4,5 means dat 3 is under 2, 4
is under 3 and 5 is under 4 in a
table form.

Therefore, S/N has 1,2,3,4,5
under it, in a table as shown in
the table of values above. i.e 1 is
under S/N and 2 is under 1 and 3
is under 2 and 4 is under 3 and
so
on.....
****************************
Slope= DL^-2(cm^-2)/DSin^2i =
0.0136-0.0224/0.96-0.1 =
0.0088/0.86 = -0.01023(cm^-2)
K=(1/5)^1/2 = (0.234/0.01023)
^1/2 = 1.512cm, =1.5cm.
Deduction intercept on vertical
axis = 0.0234(cm2).

PRECAUTIONS:
(i.) I avoided error of parallax.
(ii.) I ensured that the object pins
and the image pins were erect
and in a straight line.
(bi) When i = OL^-2 =
0.0236cm^-2 = L^-2 =
42.37cm^2.
Hence L=6.5cm.

QUESTION 3 - (ELECTRICITY):
You are provided with a
constantan wire, a 2-ohm
standard resistor, an
accumulator E, an ameter(A), a
key(K) and other necessary
apparatus.

(i.) Measure and record the e.m.f
of the accumulator provided.

(ii.) Connect a circuit as shown in
the diagram above.

(iii.) Close the Key, read and
record the ameter readings to
when the crocodile clip is not in
contact with the constantan
wire.

(iv.) Open the key with the key
making contact with the wire,
when L=90cm. Close the key.
Read and record the ammeter
reading I, Evaluate I^-1.

(v.) Repeat the procedure for
L=80,70,60 and 50cm.

(vi.) In each case, read and
record the ammeter reading and
Evaluate I^-1(A^-1). Tabulate
your readings.
(vii.) Plot a graph, L on the vertical
axis and I^-1 on the horizontal
axis.

(viii.) Determine the slope of the
graph and its intercept,c on the
vertical axis.
(ix) Evaluate K = c/S.
(x) Using your graph, determine
the current(i) when L = 55cm.

(xi.) State two precautions taken
to ensure accurate result.
SOLUTIONS: TABLE OF VALUES:
S/N: 1,2,3,4,5.
Io(A):
0.650,0.700,0.750,0.800,0.850.
L(cm):
90.00,80.00,70.00,60.00,50.00.
I^-1(A^- 1):
0.011,0.013,0.014,0.017,0.020.
I(A): 0.70,0.75,0.80,0.85,0.90.
****************************
NOTE THE FOLLOWING:
*Draw a table for the above
values.
*Note that ^ means Raise to
Power. Eg: 2^-1 means Two raise
to power minus One.

*Note that COMMA(,) in the above
table means NEXT LINE. Eg:
2,3,4,5 means dat 3 is under 2, 4
is under 3 and 5 is under 4 in a
table form.

Therefore, S/N has 1,2,3,4,5
under it, in a table as shown in
the table of values above. i.e 1 is
under S/N and 2 is under 1 and 3
is under 2 and 4 is under 3 and
so on.....
****************************
(viii.) Slope(S) = DI/DI^-1 =
0.65/0.24
= 27.1.
Intercept (c) on the vertical axis =
0.43amps.
(ix.) K= c/S = 0.43/27.1
= 0.016.
(x.) The value of the current I
when L = 55cm = 0.018cm.

(xi.) Precautions:
(a.) I made sure the key was
removed when readings were
not being taken.
(b.) I ensured that the terminals
were clean.